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Understanding Repetitive Behavior in Children With Autism

It’s not uncommon for children with autism to engage in repetitive behavior. You’ve probably seen your child do it many times, rocking while they’re playing or constantly repeating phrases and words. But is there a way to manage it, and why do they do it? 

Understanding repetitive behavior is the first step in finding an effective method to promote the well-being of your little one. This guide will offer you important insights, helpful strategies, and expert advice that will help you navigate this aspect of your child’s development.

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What is Repetitive Behavior?

Repetitive and restrictive behavior is one of the main signs of a possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. However, the mechanisms behind repetitive behaviors in autistic individuals have proven quite challenging to understand.

Although some experts suggest that these behaviors in children with ASD result from an attention deficit, others are convinced children diagnosed with autism have abnormalities in their motor system.

According to those groups of experts, behaviors and developmental disorders in people diagnosed with autism are caused by motor deficits usually observed in children with autism spectrum disorders.

The term “repetitive behavior” refers to unusual behaviors characterized by repetition, inappropriate behavior, rigidity, and a lack of adaptability. These include self-injurious, self-stimulatory, verbal, repetitive, and compulsive actions, all of which are stereotyped motor behaviors.

It is worth noting that when speaking with autistic individuals, many note that they need to engage in certain repetitive behaviors (“stimming”). If these behaviors are managed by the individual and are not causing harm to that specific person, there should be space created for this type of behavior to occur.

However, some repetitive behaviors can sometimes interfere with certain everyday activities, leading to alienation or isolation. As indicated earlier, the actual function of repetitive disorders is still unknown, but hypothesized functions can include sensory stimulation, reward or gratification, and stress reduction.

Examples of Repetitive Behavior

Examples of repetitive behaviors in children are vast, but parents can look for the following common behaviors demonstrated by children diagnosed with autism:

  • Restricted behaviors
  • Pacing back and forth in repeated movements
  • Hand flapping
  • Spinning
  • Rocking the body
  • Banging of the head against a wall or other surfaces and other forms of self-injury behaviors
  • Insistence on sameness
  • Inability to learn and adopt appropriate social behaviors

It is important to note that the mere fact that a child demonstrates any of the symptoms listed above should not necessarily be a cause for concern. Children are known to show some of the above behaviors playfully. Therefore, the key here is that these behaviors are regularly repeated.

Types of Repetitive Behavior

Repetitive behaviors are a common occurrence among children with autism. These behaviors can manifest in various ways and are often categorized into three different types: motor repetition, sensory repetition, and cognitive repetition.

Motor Repetition

Motor repetitive behaviors encompass physical movements that are repeated over and over again. These can range from simple actions such as hand-waving to more complex movements like body twirling.

Sensory Repetition

Sensory repetitive behaviors involve seeking sensory stimulation through repetition. This often includes repeatedly touching certain textures and objects, seeking specific sounds, or focusing on visual stimuli.

Cognitive Repetition

Cognitive repetitive behaviors manifest in persistent thoughts or fixations. Children on the spectrum often excessively focus on a particular topic or idea, often leading to repetitive questions or conversations.

When Should You Be Concerned?

Parents should be concerned when repetitive behaviors become destructive, compete with the child’s ability to learn or sleep, become a distraction, interfere with the child’s daily activities, or if the child’s behaviors become problematic to others consistently.

For instance, if your child is always preoccupied with pacing back and forth or flapping their hands instead of paying attention in class, that behavior is problematic.

This does not mean that the child shouldn’t have access to “stimming time” (dedicated times to engage in self-stimulatory behaviors) if these are not harmful to the child or others. Having dedicated time could lead to a higher degree of self-awareness and, ultimately, the ability to self-regulate more effectively.




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Is Repetitive Behavior A Sign Of Autism?

At what point can we associate repetitive behaviors with autism? On themselves, repetitive behaviors do not necessarily indicate signs of autism, as every human being displays some levels of repetitive actions.

However, when those behaviors begin to pose challenges for the child in the way they can relate to and with others, and if they struggle to manage these in certain environments, there is a cause for concern.

Restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests can form some of the core signs of a child with autism. They include specific circumscribed interests, sensory sensitivities, ritualistic behaviors, and other forms of repetitive actions.

What is its relevance to autism spectrum disorder? Different kinds of autism-specific research have suggested that object manipulation and repetitive movements are among the first signs of autism in children.

New research has indicated that the brain’s reward system in autism may be over-activated due to some focused interests and repetitive behavior. In contrast, other regions in the brain are simultaneously under-activated by social stimuli

Some experts have also suggested that restrictive and repetitive behaviors in children help to relieve anxiety, and this is greatly accepted by the autistic community.

Neurodivergent individuals (diagnosed with ASD, SPD, ADHD, and related conditions) argue that repetitive behaviors should not be blocked by professionals or parents as they relieve anxiety and stress. Instead, neurodivergent individuals often mention that they should be encouraged to self-soothe through “stimming” behaviors.

Any disruption of their routine can prompt an increase in a feeling such as anxiety and lead to not only a repetitive behavior but perhaps a delayed meltdown. If we understand the cause of a stress response, we can provide the child with a transition cue to alleviate some of the potential anxiety he or she might feel.

Additionally, when a child is not feeling well but has difficulties expressing or communicating it, their frustration can increase repetitive movements. Therefore, every parent should observe their child and the possible repetitive behaviors their child displays

The link between repetitive behavior and autism is a significant and well-documented aspect of ASD. Repetitive behaviors are considered one of the core features of autism, and they’re closely linked to the neurological differences that characterize this disorder.

Neurological Factors

Research suggests that repetitive behaviors may be related to how the brain processes information. Certain areas of the brain may be hypersensitive or hypo-sensitive to sensory input, which results in repetitive responses.

Communication Challenges

For many children with autism, repetitive behaviors serve as a form of communication. When verbal expression is challenging, these behaviors become a way to convey needs, interests, or discomfort.

Significance of Repetitive Behavior

Repetitive behaviors in the context of autism have several significant implications:

  • Coping mechanism: Repetitive behaviors can serve as coping mechanisms in overwhelming situations. Engaging in these actions provides a sense of control and predictability for children on the spectrum.
  • Expression of emotions: Repetitive behaviors may be a way for children with autism to express their emotions. These actions may convey excitement, anxiety, or happiness.
  • Understanding the behavior: It’s crucial for caregivers to differentiate between stimming (self-stimulatory behavior) and harmful behaviors. Stimming could be a source of comfort and should not be discouraged.

Effective Strategies for the Management of Repetitive Behaviors

Regarding repetitive behaviors, the case is different for every child, and some custom treatment plans can be applied. However, you can also try specific measures to help manage the situation.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

ABA therapy focuses on identifying triggers and teaching alternative behaviors. It aims to replace disruptive actions with more socially acceptable behaviors.

Sensory Integration Therapy

Many children with autism have heightened sensory sensitivities. Implementing sensory-focused interventions can help alleviate the need for repetitive behaviors. Creating sensory-friendly spaces, offering sensory-rich activities, and introducing sensory tools can provide alternatives to stimming behaviors.

Communication Enhancement

Encouraging your child to engage in alternative behaviors that promote communication and social interaction is essential. Speech therapy and occupational therapy can play a vital role in developing communication skills and redirecting repetitive behaviors toward more productive outlets.

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Conclusion

To sum up, there is still a lot of ongoing research concerning repetitive behavior in individuals diagnosed with autism. Although not all children’s repetitive behaviors are causes for concern, some stereotypical behaviors could lead to social isolation. 

Although displaying some repetitive behaviors, especially as a young child, is not dangerous, it could lead to a child not paying attention and thus learning through their environment. It is extremely important to provide time for your child to engage in activities where they receive the sensory input they receive.

As parents or professionals, we can provide a safe space and time for each individual to do so. If, however, the repetitive behaviors are harmful to the child or others, we should intervene. This should be done in a calm and controlled manner, where we always provide reasons and an alternative way for the child to self-soothe and self-regulate.

FAQs

Q: Are all repetitive behaviors harmful?

A: Repetitive behaviors are not necessarily harmful; some can be comforting or communicative, so it’s important to understand their context.

Q: Can repetitive behaviors be outgrown?

A: While repetitive behaviors might change over time, they might still persist in some form. However, certain interventions can help manage them effectively.

Q: Do all children with autism exhibit repetitive behaviors?

A: Repetitive behaviors vary widely among individuals with autism. Some might not display such behaviors, while others might exhibit them more prominently.

Q: Are repetitive behaviors a sign of regression?

A: Repetitive behaviors are not always a sign of regression, as they can stem from various factors, including sensory processing differences.

Q: How can society promote acceptance of repetitive behaviors?

A: Society can promote acceptance by spreading awareness, educating about autism among children, and fostering a culture of understanding and inclusion.

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